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34 Курсы

The Mathematical Sciences in 2025 (2013)
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The Mathematical Sciences in 2025 (2013)

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The vitality of the U.S. mathematical sciences enterprise is excellent. The discipline has consistently been making major advances in research, both in fundamental theory and in high-impact applications. The discipline is displaying great unity and coherence as bridges are increasingly built between subfields of research. Historically, such bridges have served as drivers for additional accomplishments, as have the many interactions between the mathematical sciences and fields of application. Both are very promising signs. The discipline’s vitality is providing clear benefits to most areas of science and engineering and to the nation. The opening years of the twenty-first century have been remarkable ones for the mathematical sciences. The list of exciting accomplishments includes among many others surprising proofs of the long-standing Poincaré conjecture and the “fundamental lemma”; progress in quantifying the uncertainties in complex models; new methods for modeling and analyzing complex systems such as social networks and for extracting knowledge from massive amounts of data from biology, astronomy, the Internet, and elsewhere; and the development of compressed sensing. As more and more areas of science, engineering, medicine, business, and national defense rely on complex computer simulations and the analysis of expanding amounts of data, the mathematical sciences inevitably play a bigger role, because they provide the fundamental language for computational simulation and data analysis. The mathematical sciences are increasingly fundamental to the social sciences and have become integral to many emerging industries.

The Engineer of 2020 Visions of Engineering in the New Century (2004)
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The Engineer of 2020 Visions of Engineering in the New Century (2004)

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The Engineer of 2020 Project centers on an effort to envision the future and to use that knowledge to attempt to predict the roles that engineers will play in the future. While of interest in itself, the exercise is also intended to provide a framework that will be used in subsequent work to position engineering education in the United States for what lies ahead, rather than waiting for time to pass and then trying to respond. This initiative is not unique in that other groups have somewhat similar efforts under way or have recently completed them. The work of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) differs in that it considers the issues with respect to all the diverse branches of engineering and examines them from the broadest possible perspective. Its principal focus is on the future of undergraduate engineering education in this country, although it is appreciated that to understand the full perspective engineering practice and engineering education must be considered in a global context. Originated and chartered by the NAE’s Committee on Engineering Education, the project consists of two parts, the first relating to the development of a vision for engineering and the work of the engineer in 2020. This phase of the work culminates with this report. The second part, which is yet to be completed, is to examine engineering education and ask what it needs to do to prepare engineers for the future. This report will be used to frame the discussions of the second phase.

Taking Science to School Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 (2007)
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Taking Science to School Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 (2007)

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This report brings together research literatures from cognitive and developmental psychology, science education, and the history and philosophy of science to synthesize what is known about how children in grades K through 8 learn the ideas and practice of science. The resulting conclusions challenge the science education community, writ large, to examine some tenacious assumptions about children’s potential for learning about science and, as a result, the priority of science in elementary schools. We believe this research synthesis and the implications from it have the potential to change science education in fundamental ways. For example, the repeated challenge from science educators is that science education should be for “all” the children. This has been a difficult challenge to meet. Although there is general agreement that all children will and must learn to read, historically there has been far less agreement that all children will and must learn science regardless of gender, race, or socioeconomic circumstances. That issue is addressed in this report. Taking Science to School speaks in a clear, evidentiary-based voice. All young children have the intellectual capability to learn science. Even when they enter school, young children have rich knowledge of the natural world, demonstrate causal reasoning, and are able to discriminate between reliable and unreliable sources of knowledge. In other words, children come to school with the cognitive capacity to engage in serious ways with the enterprise of science.


Surrounded by Science Learning Science in Informal Environments (2010)
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Surrounded by Science Learning Science in Informal Environments (2010)

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As children, many of us remember going on a family outing to a zoo, an aquarium, a planetarium, or a natural history museum. Although sometimes we may have approached such excursions warily, thinking they might prove boring, eventually there was something that caught our eye. Perhaps it was a chimpanzee staring back at us in a strangely familiar way or a shark taking a solitary swim in a custom-made tank. It could have been a moon rock brought back to Earth from one of the first manned space flights. When, at the end of the outing, parents asked, “Did you have fun?” in spite of ourselves we usually had to say yes. But then they wanted to know something else: “What did you learn?” That question was far harder to answer. Indeed, those working in science museums and other informal learning environments, including film and broadcast media; botanical gardens and nature centers; libraries; and youth, community, and out-of-school-time programs, increasingly are being called on to answer this question. Although people have participated in these activities for at least 200 years, only in the past few decades have practitioners and evaluators in the informal science community begun to study systematically what people learn, how they learn, and whether experiences in informal environments reinforce people’s identity as science learners. This work, still in its early stages, has proven to be challenging for several reasons.

Successful K-12 STEM Education Identifying Effective Approaches in science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (2011)
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Successful K-12 STEM Education Identifying Effective Approaches in science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (2011)

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This report responds to a request from Representative Frank Wolf (VA) for the National Science Foundation (NSF) to identify highly successful K-12 schools and programs in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM). In response to a request and with support from NSF, in October 2010 the National Research Council (NRC) convened an expert committee to explore this issue. The Committee on Highly Successful Schools or Programs for K-12 STEM Education was charged with “outlining criteria for identifying effective STEM schools and programs and identifying which of those criteria could be addressed with available data and research, and those where further work is needed to develop appropriate data sources.” This effort also included a public workshop on May 10-11, 20111 that was planned to address the following charge: An ad hoc steering committee will plan and conduct a public workshop to explore criteria for identifying highly successful K-12 schools and programs in the area of STEM education through examination of a select set of examples. The committee will determine some initial criteria for nominating successful schools to be considered at the workshop. The examples included in the workshop must have been studied in enough detail to provide evidence to support claims of success. Discussions at the workshop will focus on refining criteria for success, exploring models of “best practice,” and analyzing factors that evidence indicates lead to success. The discussion from the workshop will be synthesized in an individually authored workshop summary.

STEM Integration in K-12 Education Status, Prospects, and an Agenda for Research (2014)
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STEM Integration in K-12 Education Status, Prospects, and an Agenda for Research (2014)

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This report is the final product of a two-year study by the Committee on Integrated STEM Education, a group of experts on diverse subjects under the auspices of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the Board on Science Education of the National Research Council (NRC). The committee’s charge was to develop a research agenda for determining the approaches and conditions most likely to lead to positive outcomes of integrated STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education at the K–12 level in the United States. In fulfilling that charge, the committee identified and characterized existing approaches to integrated STEM education, in both formal and after-school and informal settings. It also reviewed the evidence for the impact of integrated approaches on various parameters of interest, such as greater student awareness, interest, motivation, and achievement in STEM subjects; improved college-readiness skills; and boosts in the number and quality of students who may consider a career in a STEM-related field. Over the past decade, the STEM acronym has developed wide currency in US education and policy circles. Leaders in business, government, and academia assert that education in the STEM subjects is vital not only to sustaining the innovation capacity of the United States but also as a foundation for successful employment, including but not limited to work in the STEM fields. Historically, US K–12 STEM education has focused on the individual subjects, particularly science and mathematics. Reform efforts, including development of learning standards and, more recently, large-scale assessments, likewise have treated the STEM subjects mostly in isolation. The relatively recent introduction of engineering education into some K–12 classrooms and out-of-school settings and the 2013 publication of the Next Generation Science Standards, which explicitly connect science concepts and practices to those of engineering, have elevated the idea of integration as a potential component of STEM education. Recognizing that education within the individual STEM disciplines has great value and that efforts to improve discipline-centered teaching and learning should continue, this project considers the potential benefits—and challenges—of an explicit focus on integration. The report’s primary audience is education researchers and those working in the cognitive and learning sciences. It is these individuals to whom the committee’s research agenda is directed. However, the report contains much more than the agenda. It should also prove useful to the large, diverse set of individuals directly involved in or supportive of efforts to improve STEM education in the United States. These include educators, school leaders, curriculum and assessment developers, and those engaged in teacher education and professional development, as well as policymakers and employers.

Seeing Students Learn Science Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom (2017)
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Seeing Students Learn Science Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom (2017)

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Science educators in the United States are adapting to a new vision of how students learn science. Children are natural explorers, and their observations and intuitions about the world around them are the foundation for science learning. Unfortunately, the way science has been taught in the United States has not always taken advantage of those attributes. Some students who successfully complete their K–12 science classes have not really had the chance to “do” science for themselves in ways that harness their natural curiosity and understanding of the world around them. A 2012 report, A Framework for K–12 Science Education, described a way to teach science (see Box P-1). Many educators were already familiar with the ideas in this framework, but it offered specific guidance about what the results of decades of research mean for classroom practice. Many districts and states are using the ideas in that report to make changes that will engage students in thinking and solving problems the way scientists and engineers do and will help them better see how science is relevant to their lives. This approach capitalizes on the natural curiosity all students have about the world around them and helps educators provide varied learning experiences that offer entry points for students from diverse backgrounds. The 2012 framework served as the blueprint for the development of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Many states, schools, and districts are changing curriculum, instruction, and professional development to align with these standards or others that are based on the framework. Some states that have not adopted the NGSS are using the 2012 framework to adapt their own standards to these ideas about how students learn science.

Science and Technology Public Attitudes, Knowledge, and Interest
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Science and Technology Public Attitudes, Knowledge, and Interest

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This report provides a portrait of public attitudes and understanding of science and technology (S&T) in the United States. The primary data for the report come from the General Social Survey (GSS), a long-standing, face-to-face national survey sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with comprehensive sociological and attitudinal trend data.1 The Technical Appendix provides more information on the GSS and the other data sources used in this report. All differences or patterns specifically reported in the text are statistically significant. Other public sources, including Pew Research Center and Gallup, are also noted when appropriate, as well as data from other countries. Question wording and order, as well as other factors, such as survey mode and sampling frame, generally vary across sources; comparisons across surveys should, therefore, be done with caution.

The report focuses on overall patterns in S&T attitudes and interest in science. It emphasizes over-time comparisons and comparisons between related questions. It also discusses variations by respondents’ demographic characteristics. Race is not included in the analysis because the GSS does not include an adequate number of responses from any single nonwhite group to allow for valid comparisons (see, however, Allum et al. [2018]; Plutzer [2013]). Detailed data on the demographic characteristics of respondents are included in the report’s supplemental tables and the Technical Appendix.

This report contains four main sections. The first presents Americans’ overall views about science, including the degree to which Americans see promise in S&T, whether they report reservations about S&T, and what views they hold about scientists and federal funding of scientific research. The second section addresses public attitudes about specific S&T issues, such as various environmental issues, including climate change, genetically modified food, and nuclear energy. The third section examines understanding of S&T-related facts and processes. The final section explores the American public’s interest in and source of S&T-related news and public involvement in S&T-related activities, such as visits to science or technology museums.

Although the survey questions examined throughout the report focus on views about science or technology, rather than engineering, limited available evidence suggests that most Americans may not substantially distinguish between these subjects when it comes to public opinion. Specifically, the 2014 edition of Science and Engineering Indicators included an analysis of an experiment in which half of the respondents were asked their perceptions about scientists and half were asked about engineers (National Science Board [NSB] 2014). The results showed few substantive differences between the two groups of respondents. Further, many of the specific technological issues discussed in the report (e.g., genetic modification, nuclear energy) could be understood as engineering focused. Engineering, in this regard, can be understood as a key driver of technology. Nevertheless, readers should be cautious in extrapolating views about science or technology to views about engineering.

Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12 Investigation and Design at the Center (2019)
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Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12 Investigation and Design at the Center (2019)

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Students learn by doing. Science investigation and engineering design provide an opportunity for students to do. When students engage in science investigation and engineering design, they are able to engage deeply with phenomena as they ask questions, collect and analyze data, generate and utilize evidence, and develop models to support explanations and solutions. Research studies demonstrate that deeper engagement leads to stronger conceptual understandings of science content than what is demonstrated through more traditional, memorization-intensive approaches. Investigations provide the evidence that students need to construct explanations for the causes of phenomena. Constructing understanding by actively engaging in investigation and design also creates meaningful and memorable learning experiences for all students. These experiences pique students’ curiosity and lead to greater interest and identity in science. Science is a way of knowing based on the collection and analysis of empirical data in relation to a scientific question. The growing inclusion of engineering design in K–12 classrooms presents an opportunity for students to learn yet another way of interacting with the natural and designed world around them. When investigation and design are at the center of learning, students can gather evidence and take ownership of the evidence they have gathered. This process contributes to student agency as they make sense of phenomena and designs and extend their understanding of the natural and designed world.

Next Generation Science Standards For States, By States (2013)
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Next Generation Science Standards For States, By States (2013)

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There is no doubt that science—and therefore science education—is central to the lives of all Americans. Never before has our world been so complex and science knowledge so critical to making sense of it all. When comprehending current events, choosing and using technology, or making informed decisions about one’s health care, science understanding is key. Science is also at the heart of this country’s ability to continue to innovate, lead, and create the jobs of the future. All students—whether they become technicians in a hospital, workers in a high-tech manufacturing facility, or Ph.D. researchers—must have a solid K–12 science education. Through a collaborative, state-led process, new K–12 science standards have been developed that are rich in content and practice and arranged in a coherent manner across disciplines and grades to provide all students an internationally benchmarked science education.


Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education A Nation Advancing_ (2013)
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Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education A Nation Advancing_ (2013)

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Recent attention to K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (the disciplines collectively referred to as STEM) has revealed challenges in students’ performance and persistence, particularly for groups that are underrepresented in the STEM fields (Schmidt, 2011; President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2010; Lowell et al., 2009; Hill et al., 2008; Higher Education Research Institute, 2010). Although these challenges are daunting, recent education policy developments are creating an unprecedented opportunity to address them. 

For example, educational reforms across the country are emphasizing more rigorous common state standards and assessments for all students; increases in school and teacher effectiveness; innovations in teacher preparation and professional development; and new approaches to holding districts, schools, and teachers accountable for results. In addition, the new Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (see National Governors Association and Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012)1 emphasize conceptual understanding of key ideas in each discipline, greater coherence across grade levels, and the practices of science and mathematics. Together, these changes have the potential to engage students in ways that better prepare them for postsecondary study and STEM careers, and thus eventually, for addressing current and future societal challenges and participating in an increasingly global and technologically driven society. The political will and momentum gathering behind these efforts offer an opportunity to realize improvements to K-12 science and mathematics education that have so far remained elusive. 

The success of these efforts depends on many factors, including students’ equitable access to challenging learning opportunities and instructional materials, teachers’ capacity to use those opportunities and materials well, and policies and structures that support effective educational practices. In turn, making informed decisions about improvements to education in STEM requires research and data about the content and quality of the curriculum, teachers’ content knowledge, and the use of instructional practices that have been shown to improve outcomes. However, large-scale data are not available in a readily accessible form, mostly because state and federal data systems provide information about schools (personnel, organization, and enrollment) rather than schooling (key elements of the learning process).

Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood  Paths Toward Excellence and Equity (2009)
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Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood Paths Toward Excellence and Equity (2009)

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Mathematics education has risen to the top of the national policy agenda as part of the need to improve the technical and scientific literacy of the American public. The new demands of international competition in the 21st century require a workforce that is competent in and comfortable with mathematics. There is particular concern about the chronically low mathematics and science performance of economically disadvantaged students and the lack of diversity in the science and technical workforce. Particularly alarming is that such disparities exist in the earliest years of schooling and even before school entry. Recognizing the increasing importance of mathematics and encouraged by a decade of success in improving early literacy, the Mathematical Sciences Education Board of the Center for Education at the National Research Council established the Committee on Early Childhood Mathematics. The committee was charged with examining existing research in order to develop appropriate mathematics learning objectives for preschool children; providing evidence-based insights related to curriculum, instruction, and teacher education for achieving these learning objectives; and determining the implications of these findings for policy, practice, and future research.

Learning Science in Informal Environments People, Places, and Pursuits (2009)
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Learning Science in Informal Environments People, Places, and Pursuits (2009)

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Science is shaping people’s lives in fundamental ways. Individuals, groups, and nations increasingly seek to bolster scientific capacity in the hope of promoting social, material, and personal well-being. Efforts to enhance scientific capacity typically target schools and focus on such strategies as improving science curriculum and teacher training and strengthening the science pipeline. What is often overlooked or underestimated is the potential for science learning in nonschool settings, where people actually spend the majority of their time. Beyond the schoolhouse door, opportunities for science learning abound. Each year, tens of millions of Americans, young and old, explore and learn about science by visiting informal learning institutions, participating in programs, and using media to pursue their interests. Thousands of organizations dedicate themselves to developing, documenting, and improving science learning in informal environments for learners of all ages and backgrounds. They include informal learning and community-based organizations, libraries, schools, think tanks, institutions of higher education, government agencies, private companies, and philanthropic foundations. Informal environments include a broad array of settings, such as family discussions at home, visits to museums, nature centers, or other designed settings, and everyday activities like gardening, as well as recreational activities like hiking and fishing, and participation in clubs. Virtually all people of all ages and backgrounds engage in activities that can support science learning in the course of daily life.

Kilpatrick-2001-Adding It Up Helping Children Learn Mathematics
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Kilpatrick-2001-Adding It Up Helping Children Learn Mathematics

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Public concern about how well U.S. schoolchildren are learning mathematics is abundant and growing. The globalization of markets, the spread of information technologies, and the premium being paid for workforce skills all emphasize the mounting need for proficiency in mathematics. Media reports of inadequate teaching, poorly designed curricula, and low test scores fuel fears that young people are deficient in the mathematical skills demanded by society. Such concerns are far from new. Over a century and a half ago, Horace Mann, secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education, was dismayed to learn that Boston schoolchildren could answer only about a third of the arithmetic questions they were asked in a survey. “Such a result repels comment,” he said. “No friendly attempt at palliation can make it any better. No severity of just censure can make it any worse.” In 1919, when part of the survey was repeated in school districts around the country, the results for arithmetic were even worse than they had been in 1845. Apparently, there has never been a time when U.S. students excelled in mathematics, even when schools enrolled a much smaller, more select portion of the population. Over the last half-century, however, mathematics achievement has become entangled in urgent national issues: building military and industrial strength during the Cold War, maintaining technological and economic advantage when the Asian tigers roared, and most recently, strengthening public education against political attacks. How well U.S. students are learning mathematics and what should be done about it are now matters for every citizen to ponder. And one hears calls from many quarters for schools, teachers, and students to boost their performance.

Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation
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Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation

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Invention, knowledge transfer, and innovation are distinct but interrelated components of a complex system for transforming creativity and knowledge from science and engineering (S&E) into benefits to society and the economy. Long-term impacts of the innovation process emerge as knowledge, inventions, and innovations diffuse through society. Major advances such as electricity, engines, sanitation systems, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and telecommunication have had widespread benefits where developed as well as around the world (Gordon 2016). The innovation process has the potential for less desirable outcomes as well, including rapid obsolescence of some job skills, increased inequality across regions and groups of people, vulnerability of systems to attacks, and ethical issues raised by new technologies.

The innovation process is multidimensional. Forming a complete picture of this process requires indicators on actors as individuals as well as through institutions including industry, government, academia, and nonprofits. It also requires indicators of the physical capital and infrastructure, both public and private; intangible capital; and publicly available knowledge that enable innovation.

This report covers innovation-related activities, such as patenting and registration of trademarks, as well as the creation of intangible capital, such as software, research and development (R&D), and other creative originals.1 Furthermore, the report describes university and government efforts to make their technologies available for commercial development and to support the creation of new businesses. The first section discusses invention and provides patenting data by sector and technology area as well as an international comparison of patenting activity. Both utility and design patents are presented. Design patents protect the visual characteristics of an invention, while a utility patent protects the way that the invention works. The Beyond Patents section covers trademarks. Trademarks protect symbols, words, or designs that distinguish the source of products.

The next section of the report focuses on knowledge transfer, including technology-transfer activity data for academic institutions and the federal government. Within the U.S. innovation system, these institutions have a special role creating basic research insights as well as supporting activities to transfer science and technology (S&T) knowledge into use. Technology transfer activities include invention disclosures, patenting, licensing, and collaborative R&D agreements. Citations from patent documents to peer-reviewed literature acknowledge the priority and foundation of S&E knowledge. Coauthorships between authors affiliated with businesses and authors from other sectors are indicators of collaboration across sectors. The last section focuses on innovation, with indicators of the emergence of new and improved products, funding for new businesses through venture capital, and the number and employment effects of small and fast-growing firms. Changes in productivity provide a longer-term perspective on the technological change that innovation brings about and its impact on economic growth.

Increasing Student Success in developmental Mathematics Proceedings of a Workshop (2019)
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Increasing Student Success in developmental Mathematics Proceedings of a Workshop (2019)

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This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop proceedings: Helen E. Burn, Department of Mathematics and Curriculum Research Group, Highline College; Ted Coe, Mathematics, Achieve, Inc.; Tristan Denley, Academic Affairs, University System of Georgia; and Thai- Huy Nguyen, College of Education, Seattle University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by George R. Boggs, Superintendent/President Emeritus, Palomar College. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

Identifying and Supporting Productive STEM Programs in Out-of-School Settings (2015)
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Identifying and Supporting Productive STEM Programs in Out-of-School Settings (2015)

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The ways in which young people learn about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has fundamentally changed in the past decade. More so than ever, young people now have opportunities to learn STEM in a wide variety of settings, including clubs, summer programs, museums, parks, and online activities. They spend more time in supervised programs outside of school, and they have greater access to on-demand learning resources and opportunities. At the same time, STEM learning outside of school has become a focal piece of the education opportunities provided by many national nonprofit organizations, statewide education networks, federal programs, and corporate and family foundations. And there is growing evidence that opportunities to learn STEM outside of school directly affect what is possible inside classrooms, just as what happens in classrooms affects out-of-school learning. The Committee on Successful Out-of- School STEM Learning was charged with outlining the criteria that policy makers, program developers, and other stakeholders can use to identify effective out-of-school STEM settings and programs. It was also charged with identifying those criteria for which data are readily available and those for which further work is needed to develop appropriate data sources. To address its charge, the committee organized a National Summit on Successful Out-of-School STEM Learning, reviewed relevant research, and commissioned papers to synthesize existing research.

Holmlund-2018-Making sense of STEM education in K-12 contexts
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Holmlund-2018-Making sense of STEM education in K-12 contexts

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Background: Despite increasing attention to STEM education worldwide, there is considerable uncertainty as to what constitutes STEM education and what it means in terms of curriculum and student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the commonalities and variations in educators’ conceptualizations of STEM education. Sensemaking theory framed our analysis of ideas that were being selected and retained in relation to professional learning experiences in three contexts: two traditional middle schools, a STEM-focused school, and state-wide STEM professional development. Concept maps and interview transcripts from 34 educators holding different roles were analyzed: STEM and non-STEM teachers, administrators, and STEM professional development providers. 

Results: Three themes were included on over 70% of the 34 concept maps: interdisciplinary connections; the need for new, ambitious instructional practices in enacting a STEM approach; and the engagement of students in realworld problem solving. Conceptualizations of STEM education were related to educational contexts, which included the STEM education professional development activities in which educators engaged. We also identified differences across educators in different roles (e.g., non-STEM teacher, administrator). Two important attributes of STEM education addressed in the literature appeared infrequently across all contexts and role groups: students’ use of technology and the potential of STEM-focused education to provide access and opportunities for all students’ successful participation in STEM. 

Conclusions: Given the variety of institutionalized practices and school contexts within which STEM education is enacted, we are not convinced that a single worldwide definition of STEM education is critical. What we do see as essential is that those working in the same system explore the common elements that are being attributed to STEM education and co-construct a vision that provides opportunities for all their students to attain STEM-related goals. This is especially important in the current reform contexts related to STEM education. We also see that common conceptions of STEM education appear across roles and contexts, and these could provide starting points for these discussions. Explicitly identifying the ideas educators are and are not selecting and retaining can inform professional learning activities at local and larger scales.

Higher Education in Science and Engineering
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Higher Education in Science and Engineering

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This report provides a portrait of S&E higher education in the United States, including trends over time and comparisons with other nations. S&E fields, as defined in this report, include astronomy, chemistry, physics, atmospheric sciences, earth sciences, ocean sciences, mathematics and statistics, computer sciences, agricultural sciences, biological sciences, psychology, social sciences, and engineering. At the doctoral level, the medical and health sciences are included under S&E because the doctoral-level data correspond to the doctor’s-research/scholarship degree level, which includes research-focused degrees.

The report is divided into four main sections. The first section provides an overview of the U.S. higher education system, with special emphasis on several types of institutions, and on distance and online education. This section also provides information on sources of aid for undergraduate and graduate S&E education, with a focus on the federal government’s role. The second section looks at trends over time in S&E degree awards at the undergraduate and graduate levels, highlighting patterns by field. The third section focuses on the demographic attributes of S&E degree recipients, including sex and race and ethnicity. It examines trends by degree level and field. The final section focuses on international S&E higher education. This section provides data on students on temporary visas who study or earn degrees in the United States. It also benchmarks the United States with other nations in terms of S&E degrees awarded.


English Learners in STEM Subjects Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives (2018)
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English Learners in STEM Subjects Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives (2018)

Взяты из национальной американской академии stem

English learners (ELs) comprise a diverse and multitalented pool of learners that is persistently increasing, both in absolute size and as a percentage of the U.S. school population. ELs span more than 350 language groups, represent diversity in cultural groups, and reach the full range of social classes within U.S. society. Such diversity is at once a strength of the EL population and a complication to finding simple solutions to improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) outcomes for the group writ large. Long-held accounting practices in education and U.S. policy complicate the development of a clear picture of the educational attainment of ELs. Thus, high school graduation rates, college going, and career choices among ELs are misestimated in many official statistics and reports because of the failure to consider those Englishproficient students who began school as ELs. These facts notwithstanding, ELs are underrepresented in STEM fields in college as well as in the workforce. These lower participation rates are made more troublesome by the ever-increasing demand for workers and professionals in STEM fields and by the disproportionate economic value that these jobs bring to society and, as a result, to the individuals employed in STEM fields. In general, jobs in STEM fields have higher earning potential than non-STEM jobs, and the number of jobs in STEM have outpaced all other fields since 1990. Opening avenues to success in STEM for the nation’s ELs offers a path to improved earning potential, income security, and economic opportunity for these students and their families. At least as important, increasing the diversity of the STEM workforce confers benefits to the society as a whole, not only due to the improved economic circumstances stances for a substantial segment of society, but also because diversity in the STEM workforce will bring new ideas and new solutions to STEM challenges. Organizing schools and preparing teachers so that all students can reach their full potential in STEM has the potential to transform the lives of individual students, as well as the lives of the teachers, the schools, and society as a whole. In the report that follows, the committee attempts to determine what can be learned from the research literature to help guide improvements in the educational system, through improved assessments and assessment practices; reporting and classification; improved instruction that recognizes the central role that content area instruction plays in children’s language development and content area achievement; leveraging connections to home, culture, and school; better preparation of teachers and administrators; and the establishment of federal, state, and local policies that will build and sustain capacity of school systems to allow all ELs to reach their full potential as STEM learners.